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Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses.
Metropolitan Museum Cleveland Museum of Art. Internet Arcade Console Living Room. Books to Borrow Open Library. Search the Wayback Machine Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. Sign up for free Log in. Grammar in context. Berners-Lee's parents worked on the first computer that was sold commercially. People who are interested in reading newspapers from other cities can find them on the Web.
The Internet, which was designed in the s, didn't attract casual users until Berners-Lee created the Web. Some wealthy people signed a Giving Pledge, which is a promise to give away most of their money in their lifet Pierre Omidyar, who is a billionaire, signed the Giving Pledge. Computers that are sold today have much more memory and speed than computers that were sold ten years a1 Use the second sentence as the I, adjective clause or descriptive phrase.
The second sentence adds nonessential information. Pierre Omidyar came to the U. His father was a professor. I Pierre Omidyar. Pierre Omidyar wrote his first computer program at age He is from France. He lived in California. He started his business there. Pierre Omidyar saw a good use for computer technology. He started eBay as a hobby in his home. BusinessWeek named Meg Whitman among the 25 most powerful business managers. BusinessWeek is a popula business magazine. Meg Whitman resigned from eBay in She decided to go into politics at that time.
John Donahoe got the company out of decline. Pierre Omidyar hired him in Bill Gates started Microsoft at the age of He dropped out of Harvard during his second year.
Amazon began by selling books. It is now the largest online retailer. Jeff Bezos's parents invested money in Amazon. They had never heard of the Internet. Tim Berners-Lee is sometimes compared to Johannes Gutenberg. Gutenberg made books possible in the fifteenth century. Berners-Lee was interested in using the Internet to share information. His parents designed computers. Discuss your answers with a partner.
Berners-Lee, who created the Web, didn't make money from it. Pierre Omidyar created eBay, which helps people buy and sell items online.
Pierre Omidyar, who m I admire, believes in donating money to help others. I'm very happy with my present computer, which I bought online. Where I want to go to a college where I can study computer science. Berners-Lee worked in Switzerland, where he met other scientists. When My grandparents grew up at a time when The Web was created in , when most there were no personal computers. Berners-Lee, whose parents worked on computers, learned a lot about technology when he was young.
Meg Whitman, whose business expertise Omidyar needed, started to work at eBay in Adjective clause after indefinite compound I don't know anyone who doesn't have a cell phone. Descriptive phrase Computers made in the s had a very small memory.
J ,I' Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, never finished college. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. If so, circle all possible answers. What is a computer virus? Who is Deron Beal? What is eBay? PART 2 Some of the following sentences need commas. If they do, put them in. If the sentence doesn't need commas, write NC no commas. John Donahoe, who replaced Meg Whitman, saved eBay from decline.
In when John Donahoe came to work at eBay many top employees were fired. Many online businesses that do well in the beginning later fail. Amazon an online retailer was created by Jeff Bezos. At first Amazon was a place where you could buy only books. Now Amazon is a retailer that sells almost anything. I can't remember a time when there were no smartphones. Berners-Lee is a name that most people don't recognize.
Everything that we read in this lesson is related to the Internet. Many people confuse the Web with the Internet which was created in the s. There are many websites where you can get travel information. Never use what as a relative pronoun. You can't omit a relative pronoun that is the subject of the adjective clause.
If the relative pronoun is the object of the adjective clause, don't put an object after the verb. Make sure you use subject-verb agreement in the adjective clause. Put a noun before an adjective clause. A person who Wlm-doesn't know how to use a computer in today's world is lost. Don't confuse whose with who's. Put the subject before the verb in an adjective clause. Use whose, not his, her, or their to show possession in an adjective clause. Find the mistakes and correct them. If the shaded words are correct, write C.
C who l. Last semester I took a photo editing class that has helped me a lot. The teacher what taught the class is an expert in photo editing.
This teacher, whose name is Mark Ryan, is patient, helpful, and 3. A lot of the photos I took were too dark. I learned how to lighten the parts needed lightening 5.
I also learned to cut out parts I don't want them. For example, I 6. She came right at the time when was taking the picture my friend and she wanted to be in it. I tried scanning it and editing it at home, but I didn't do a good job. My teacher, who his scanner is much better than mine scanned the photo and showed me how to 1 I learned many things in this class.
Everything what I learned is very helpful. I started to take another photo class this semester. The teacher who's class I'm taking now is not Who wants to learn a lot about photo editing should take Mark Ryan's class. Write about the ways computers and the Internet have made life simpler. Write about two websites or apps that you like.
Explain how they are helpful or enjoyable for you. Edit your writing from Part 3. Jackson Brown Jr. Pay special attention to the words in bold. Andrew Carnegie was one of the world's richest men. He made a fortnne 2 in the oil and steel industries. Did he enjoy his wealth? Of course, he did. But there is something he enjoyed even more: giving away his money.
Carnegie was born in Scotland in to a very poor family. When his father lost his job, his mother started to work to support the family. When Andrew was thirteen years old, his mother persuaded his father to leave Scotland for the "possibilities of America. He met a man who let him and other working boys use his small library. Andrew was eager to read and learn as much as he could. He was intelligent and hardworking, and it didn't take him long to become rich. As Carnegie's fortunes grew, he started to give his money away.
One of his biggest desires was to build free public libraries. He wanted everyone to have access to libraries and education. He believed that education was the key to a successful life. In , there were only a few public libraries.
Carnegie started to build free libraries so that everyone would have access to knowledge. Over the doors of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, carved in stone, are the words, "Free to the People. But building libraries was not his only contribution. In his book The Gospel of Wealth, he tried to persuade other wealthy people to give away their money. I Elegant staircase inside the Carnegie Library building at Mt. The Carnegie family left Scotland because they saw more economic possibilities in the United States.
When Carnegie was young, he had no help from anyone. Carnegie encouraged rich people to help others. Explanation Carnegie wanted to help others. An infinitive is used after certain verbs. He wanted rich people to give away their money. An infinitive can be used afterthe object of the sentence. I'm happy to help. An infinitive can follow certain adjectives.
It's important to help others. An infinitive follows certain expressions that begin with it. To help others makes a person feel good. An infinitive can be the subject of a sentence. Do you volunteer your time in order to help others? An infinitive can be used to show purpose. He's old enough to help.
She's too young to help. An infinitive is used after expressions with too and enough. Language Notes: 1. In a sentence with two infinitives connected by and or or, the second to is usually omitted. I want to make money and help others. You can choose to volunteer time or donate money. Put not before an infinitive to make it negative. Carnegie decided not to die rich.
Everyone wants to be given an opportunity to succeed. According to an organization, Save the Children, Niger is the worst place in the world to be a mother. In , she started a program called Expanding 7.
This program brings teenage girls from Niger to Chicago for the summer. It is important for Natzke - - - - c c - - - - - these girls become leaders.
She wants them Natzke decided to help girls from Niger. Everyone deserves to have an education. See Chart 8. You may use the same verb more than once. They want; the example of Andrew Carnegie; they have also chosen 2. They signed a document called the Giving Pledge, where they promise 3. They want 4. Gates and Buffet have managed - - - c : - - - - over American billionaires to sign the Giving 6. Pledge too. Gates wants all children with a good education and medical care. Use the verbs from the box.
His parents chose Scotland. They hoped a better life in the U. Carnegie wanted free public libraries. He didn't want rich. Children in all countries deserve 7. Everyone wants a good education. In some countries, poor children can't go to school. Fill in the blank with an infinitive phrase to tell how you would like to help others.
Share your answers with a partner. He encouraged them to use use libraries. The object can be a noun. The object can be a pronoun. A: My brother likes to buy a lot of expensive "toys.
A: How do Bill and Melinda Gates persuade billionaires to give away their money? B: They talk to them. They a. A: Andrew Carnegie's mother was worried about her children. She talked to her husband about the possibilities of a better life. B: What did she want,? A: She wanted the family to America. A: My sister is a very generous person. Do you mean she gives her children a lot of things?
A: No. B: That's nice to hear. Those words encourage ; my children to be generous, too. A: My parents weren't rich but they always helped other people. B: How did they do that? A: They donated their time. So I tutor a. I want their education. A: My parents always gave me money when I was a child.
B: Did you buy a lot of toys? They encouraged a. B: Save for what? A: I saved my money for a charity project. A woman says to her husband1 rTeach the children good values. My parents always said to me, "Help others. A mother says to her children, "Don't forget about other people. The father said to his children, "Give to charity. Parents say to their children1 uBe kind to others. I said to you, 11 Work hard. My parents said to us uGive money to people in need.
My parents said to me, "Don't be selfish. Parents say to their children, "Be polite. Carnegie persuaded wealthy people to give away their money. You convinced me to help others. Get, in this case, means persuade. Carnegie helped people to get an education. Leslie helps girls to improve their lives. The base form is more common. When Carnegie was a child 1 he met a rich man who had a small library.
This man let children use his library. This man permitted children to use his library. This man allowed children to use his library. Let, permit, and allow have the same meaning. Make can mean force. Make can mean cause something to happen.
No one can make you give to charity. Giving to charity makes me feel good. Have means to give a job or task to someone. Warren Buffet had his children sign the Giving Pledge. The teacher had us write a composition about charity. A: Do you always give to charity? B: I know I should. But I don't always do it. A: Whenever I get a gift in the mail from a charity, I send a check.
B: What kind of gifts do you receive in the mail? A: I often get address labels. Don't you? I just use the labels and throw away b. A: I volunteered for the public TV station last month.
A: My job was to address envelopes. It was fun. I met other volunteers. A: I have a doctor's appointment on Friday, and my car doesn't work. A: I don't want to bother you. B: It's not a bother. I love to volunteer my time. A: When I was a child, my parents gave me money once a week. There are many ways to help others. Some people donate money. I volunteer for my local public radio station. The radio station needs money from listeners.
Without their support, the radio station could not 1. We let 2. Everyone can listen to public radio for free. But listeners should pay for this service, if they can. I'd like to convince my 5. I l l Lesson 8 facebook. Some people are happy to help others.
It makes me sad to see so many poor people. I am proud to be a volunteer. We are pleased to help. Explanation Certain adjectives can be followed by an infinitive.
Many of these adjectives describe a person's emotional or mental state. Language Note: The following adjectives can be followed by an infinitive: pleased sad eager afraid ashamed glad prepared sorry delighted happy proud surprised disappointed lucky ready willing EXERCISE 10 A college student has volunteered her time with an agency that delivers food to poor families.
She is discussing her duties with the volunteer coordinator. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate infinitive. Answers may vary. I'm eager,; people who need my help. A: You're going to deliver meals to people in this neighborhood who don't have enough food. B: I'm surprised - - - - c - - - - that some people don't have enough to eat. This seems like a 4. A: It is. But the economy is bad. Most people are lucky, a job. But some people have 5. Often people are ashamed, - for help.
B: I can understand that. But don't worry. A: Don't be afraid; into a stranger's home. Someone will always go with you.
B: I'm happy, food to people who need it. A: I'm glad that you're going to work with us. B: And I'm lucky such generous parents. They taught me about giving when I was B: I wanted a summer job, but I couldn't find one. It's going to be boring. I'm ready 2. And rny parenls expect me 3. My mom won't let me 5. B: Not really. I haven't even thought about saving for college yet. I want a job because I'm planning a car. A: You need about college too.
You're going to graduate next year. And my parents A: Have you thought about volunteering your time this summer? A: Don't just think about money. Try;-;; about how you can help other people. You can I3. B: I keep telling you. What will I get if I do those things? I won't I6. A: You'll get satisfaction. Helping others will make you And you'll learn After you finish community college and go to a four-year college, it I8.
It will help you ;:-;into I9. A: I volunteered when I was your age, and I found that it was more valuable than money.
B: OK. Ol 1R8 Joyce Koenig, an artist, believes that it's important to help others. She heard of a summer camp in Wisconsin called One Step at a Time, for children with cancer. Even though these kids are sick, ies important for them to have fun too. It costs money for these kids to go to camp, so Joyce decided to see what she could do to help. It's impossible for her to donate a lot of money, so she had to think of another way to help. She wanted to combine her love of art and her desire to help others.
She had an idea: She started making and selling beautiful cards in order to raise money for these kids. Because these cards are all handmade, it was taking her a long time to make a lot of them. So Joyce had another idea. She started inviting friends to her house to help her make the cards. Often, she has cardmaking parties; the guests go into her studio and make the cards together.
At first her friends were hesitant. But once they saw the beautiful materials that she had in her studio, her friends felt more comfortable designing, cutting, and pasting in order to make an original card. But the materials are expensive. To make money without spending money, Joyce asks for and gets donations of paper, glue, scissors, ribbon, and other supplies from nearby stores.
Joyce uses her love of art to find a way to make money for kids with cancer. To produce a large number of cards, she needed the help of her friends. At first, her friends were eager to help her. Explanation It's important to help other people. Ifs fun to make cards. It's possible to get materials for free.
An infinitive phrase can be the subject of a sentence. It introduces a delayed infinitive subject. It wasn't possible for her to make a lot of cards by herself. It costs a lot of money to send the kids to camp.
It takes time and effort to raise money. It costs her very little to make cards. An object can follow take and cost. To give money away is the best thing rich people can do. To help others gives a person satisfaction. Sometimes we begin a sentence with an infinitive phrase.
A sentence that begins with an infinitive is formal. It's important to think about the needs of others. Begin with an it phrase. It's impossible 2. Jh"'a""r"'d' to get donations of materials. To raise money for charity is a good thing. It's a good thing to raise money for charity. To raise one million dollars is not easy. To fight disease takes a lot of money. To help poor people is everyone's responsibility. To produce high-quality education takes a lot of money. To build libraries was Carnegie's dream.
To raise money for sick children is Joyce's goal. To fight disease in poor countries will take time. In order to shows purpose.
It answers the question Why? Joyce sells cards to raise money. In order to can be shortened. We can simply use to. The purpose phrase can come before the main clause. If so, we use a comma after the purpose phrase. In order to 'l"e"accr.. There are many people who need help. I have enough time to make a card.
You are never too young to help others. I worked too slowly to finish the card. Too shows excess for a specific purpose. Enough shows sufficiency for a specific purpose. Am I talented enough to design a card? Joyce sells cards easily enough to raise money. I have enough time to volunteer this summer.
Making cards is not too hard for me to do. Sometimes the infinitive phrase can be omitted. It is understood from the context: I can t volunteer this summer because I'm too busy.
Put the words in the correct order. Add to where necessary. A: I heard about your card project, and I'd like to help you. But I don't have enou0h talent I. Anyone can do it. I don't have,,, I have 8. B: That's not a problem.
When people have they help. If not, that's okay too. Is there anything else I can do? B: You can make a donation. A: Really? They're so inexpensive. Every dollar helps. A: I heard about a volunteer project at the park. Some friends and I are going to pick up garbage. B: Why would you want to do that? I have l. A: You always say you want to volunteer. About 50 volunteers are coming. B: Butit's ,to spend the whole day in the sun. It's almost 90 degrees today.
A: We can go swimming afterwards. The park has a big swimming pool. You swim, right? A: Don't worry. There's a shallow end and a deep end. You can stay in the shallow end. B: The shallow end has a lot of kids. A: I guess you're just not interested in helping out. However, Mate! Dawson, a forklift? By working hard, saving carefully, and investing his money wisely, he became rich. But he didn't care about owning expensive cars or taking fancy vacations.
Instead of spending his money on himself, he enjoyed giving it away. Why did Dawson insist on giving his money away to students? One reason was that he did not have the opportunity to finish school.
He had to drop out of school after the seventh grade to help support his poor family. He knew that not having an education limits job possibilities. Also, he learned about giving from his parents. He watched them work hard, save their money, and help others less fortunate. His mother made Dawson promise to always give something back. He was grateful to his parents for teaching him the importance of helping others. When he became rich, he didn't change his lifestyle.
He continued driving his old car and living in a one-bedroom apartment. And he didn't stop working until shortly before he died at the age of When asked why he worked long past the time when most people retire, he replied, "It keeps me going, knowing I'm helping somebody. Dawson started out poor but became rich.
When he was rich, he changed his lifestyle. His goal was to help students get an education. A gerund is used as a noun subject or object. Examples Contributing money is one way to help. Volunteering your time is another way to help. A gerund phrase can be used as the subject. Dawson started working in He continued driving an old car even after he became rich. He understood the importance ofhelping others. A gerund phrase can be used as the object of a object.
To make a gerund negative, we put not before the gerund. Not finishing high school limits job possibilities. We appreciate being given the opportunity to have an education. A gerund subject takes a singular verb. Helping others gives a person pleasure. What did Patty do before this? She made a lot of money In fact, she was the highest-ranking woman there.
But she 7. She became more 8. When she started her new volunteer 9. She realized that She's concerned about II. She doesn't mind ;. Helping others makes Stonesifer feel good. Answers will vary. Owning a lot of things doesn't 0ive people much satisfaction.
Examples Dawson didn't care about owning fancy things. He believed in helping others. Stonesifer is concerned about helping people. Stonesifer has satisfaction helping others. A gerund is used after the noun in the following expressions: have a difficult time, have difficulty, have experience, have fun, have a good time, have a hard time, have a problem, have trouble, have satisfaction, spend time, spend money. Circle the prepositions that precede a gerund. Common Phrases I facebook.
Plan, afraid, and proud can be followed by an infinitive too. I plan on volunteering on weekends. I I plan to volunteer on weekends. I'm afraid of making a mistake. I I'm afraid to make a mistake. He's proud of being a volunteer. I He's proud to be a volunteer. Sometimes to is part of an infinitive. I need to help my family. Sometimes to is a part of a verb phrase and is followed by a gerund. I look forward to starting my new volunteer job.
In some cases, no preposition is necessary. A: My father's going to retire next month. He's worried about havin0 1. For a lot of people, their self-worth depends 2. Besides, she's not accustomed 4. B: Doesn't he have any interests? A: Well, he's interested - - - c : - -. I can't wait to tell him. Are you interested in helping other people? In your native country, do some people have a hard time feeding their families?
Is there help from the government or other organizations? In your native country, is there someone who is famous for helping people in need? Do you plan on volunteering in the future? If so, what kind of volunteer work interests you? He couldn't imagine not helping others.
Students appreciate receiving financial aid. Many verbs are followed by a gerund phrase. My friend likes to go bowling on Saturdays, but I prefer volunteering. I don't mind means that something is OK with me; it doesn't bother me. Leslie Natzke has many fun activities for her girls from Niger. It's hot in Chicago in the summer. Examples a Dawson liked giving money away. Language Note: The verbs below can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with no difference in meaning: begin continue like prefer hate love start can't stand EXERCISE 27 In the following sentences, change gerunds to infinitives and infinitives to gerunds.
Dawson's parents loved to help others. Dawson's parents loved helpin il others. They hated seeing people suffer. They hated to see people suffer. Dawson began working when he was 19 years old. He liked giving away money. He continued to work until he was 80 years old. He preferred to live in a small apartment. He loved to help students get an education. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate gerund or infinitive.
It doesn't matter which one you use. A: I want to work this summer, but I can't decide what to do. B: How about volunteering in a museum? B: You're a great swimmer. Why don't you volunteer to teach kids how to swim?
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