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Ans: Buffering is a way of improving performance which accessing data from database. Next time whenever you run the same program this time it will collect the data directly from Buffer 10 Q: What are the different types of Tables? Ans: There are 3 types of tables in SAP 4. Transparent Table 5. Cluster Table 6.

How you can maintain a search to specific field in a table? Client Dependent tables are available in other clients also without data 22Q: It is possible to create a table without Primary key? Ans: Data Class: It is a physical storage location or table space where tables are stored ultimately after activation.

It is of 3 types 4. APPL0 holds master data tables 5. APPL1 holds transactional data tables 6. What is the need of creating TMG in real time? What are types of Indexes? Ans: 37Q: What is Lock Object? Have you created Lock Object? What is its significance?

Ans: Database Table Structure View Data Element Domain Table Type Type Group Lock Object Ans: The database layer describes the data formats used in the database. Ans: The Data class determines in which table space the table is stored when it is created in the database. Ans: The Size category describes the probable space requirement of the table in the database.

APPL0- Master data data frequently accessed but rarely updated 2. APPL1- Transaction data data that is changed frequently 3. APPL2- Organizational data customizing data that is entered when system is configured and then rarely changed The other two types are: 4. USR 5. USR1 - Intended for customer's own developments. Ans: The values specified for the size category and data class are mapped to database-specific values via control tables. I: Integer. N: Numerical character string of arbitrary length.

V: Character string of variable length, length is given in the first two bytes. X: Hexadecimal binary storage. Ans : You can specify the extent sizes and the table space physical storage area in the database in which a transparent table is to be stored by setting the size category and data class.

Ans : The correction system manages changes to internal system components. This enables you to correct and transport related objects as a unit. Ans: True. Ans : 31Q: A field containing currency amounts data type CURR must be assigned to a reference table and a reference field. The assignment of the field containing quantity amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. Ans: By specifying technical settings we can control how database tables are created in the database. Ans: The table's attributes determine who is responsible for maintaining a table and which types of access are allowed for the table.

Of structures that can be included in a table or structure. Ans: Nine. Ans: One. Ans: No. Ans : The tables making up an aggregate object primary and secondary are called aggregate object.

Ans: Yes. Ans : A match code can be built in two different ways: 1. Logical structure: The match code data is set up temporarily at the moment when the match code is accessed. Update type I, k. Physical Structure: The match code data is physically stored in a separate table in the database.

Update type A, S, P. Ans: A data element describes the role played by a domain in a technical context. A data element contains semantic information. Ans : Yes. We can do so by just overwriting the entry in the field domain. Ans : No. If you want to specify no data element and therefore no domain for a field, you can enter data type and field length and a short text directly in the table maintenance.

Ans : If the value of a field in a table is undefined or unknown, it is called a null value. Ans : Structures are constructed the almost the same way as tables, the only difference using that no database table is generated from them.

Ans : When two users simultaneously attempt to access the same data record, this is synchronized by a lock mechanism. Work with SE38 create a Dialog Programming 2. Work with SE51 create a Screen 3. Work with SE93 create a T code 4. PBO Screen is called 2. PAI This event will triggers whenever you select a Button 3.

IF zfarmer-acno EQ 0. It is used for modifying screen. It is having following fields 1. Group1 2. Group2 3. Group3����� 4. Input 5. Required 6. Invisible 7. CLEAR: wa1, wa2, wa3, redavg, blueavg, greenavg. Input 2. Processing Logic 3. Output Selection-Screen Processing Logic Output Databa se The reports that will designed up to now are without a proper structured format Design the same reports in a proper structure format with events Types of Reports: 1.

Classical Reports 2. Interactive Reports 3. Default values in selection-screen 2. Texts on push buttons in selection-screen 3. Texts for blocks, radio buttons, check boxes����.. Ques: What is the flow of events? Pass lifnr of EKKO to lfa1 and get name1 3. Fields: 1. KNUMV condition number 2. KPOSN item number for condition 3. KAWRT condition base value 5. KBETR condition rate 6.

Get ebeln, bedat, lifnr from EKKO based on input 2. WHEN 1. WHEN 2. VBELN invoice number 2. WAERK document currency 4. VKOGR sales organization 5. VTWEG distribution channel 6. KALSM pricing procedure 7. GJAHR physical year RFBSK status of bill KURRF exchange rate ZTERM payment terms BUKRS company code SPART division KDGRP customer group AGBEL sales order number 8. MATNR material code 9. ARKTX item description CHARG batch number MATKL material group CITY1 city 5. Traditional ALV 2.

Simple ALV 2. Blocked ALV 3. Classical ALV 2. FORM display. Layout work area 3. Field catalog internal table 4. JUST it specifies left or right format for a specific field 6. EDIT by default the field catalogs in a layout are in display mode.

Using this option a field should be converted into change mode ZEBRA alternate colors 2. Then why you created it? MATNR material code 2. WERKS plant 3.

LGORT storage location 4. INSME stock in quality inspection 6. EINME total stock of all restricted stock 7. SPEME blocked stock 8. UP ascending order 4. DOWN descending order 5. KEY text for heading in 20 characters 3.

NAME name of event 2. Get kunnr name1 regio from kna1 table based on input 2. Get kunnr spart kdgrp from knvv table by passing kunnr of kna1 table 3. Get spart vtext from tspat table by passing spart of knvv table 4. Get bland bezei from tu table by passing region of kna1 table Processing Logic 1.

FORM layout. Get kunnr name from kna1 by processing kunrg of vbrk 3. DOCYR year 2. DOCNO excise document number 3. BUKRS company code 4. WERKS plant 5. EXGRP excise group 6. EXNUM excise number 7. EXDAT excise date 8. LIFNR vendor number 9. EXBED basic excise duty EXSED special excise duty EXAED additional excise duty CESS cess amount VBELN subsequent document number 2.

VBELV preceding document number 3. RFMNG reference quantity 5. MEINS unit of measurement 6. RFWRT reference value 7. VBELN sales order number 2. KDGRP customer group 3. LCNUM letter of credit number 4. Maintains field catalogs 2. Maintains data in list 3. Layout work area 2. Field catalog internal table 3. Internal table name 4. Events internal table 5.

Get matnr from MARA based on input 2. CLEAR cnt. FORM sort. FORM key. FORM display-hierseq. Current program name 2. Sorting internal table 5. Layout for sale 6.

Events internal table 7. Header internal table name 8. Item internal table name 9. Key work area for bifurcation Header internal table Accounting Document Number: For every finance transaction system will creates an accounting document number T Codes: 1.

FB01 2. FB02 3. FB03 Tables: 1. BKPF 2. Account Receivable: This document is created when vendor will receive money form customer T Codes: 1. F 2. BSID 2. Account Payable: This document is created when customer will pay money to vendor T Codes: 1. BSIK 2.

Asset Accounting: Every company has to purchase assets All assets are posted to asset accounting T Codes: 1. AB01 2. AB02 3. AB03 Tables: 1. ANEK 2. ANEP 3. ANLC 4. ANLZ 5. FS01 2. FS10N 3. FAGLL03 4. FBL1N 5. FBL3N 6. FBL5N Tables: 1. SKA1 2. BSIS 4. Personal Administration i Personal management ii Organizational structure iii Personality development iv Compensation management v Recruitment 2. Time Management 5. Travel Management Info Types: It is a set of related data fields stores information at one place in HR Every Info type is a 4 letter word Example: basic salory family previous employers addresses ������.

PA10 2. PA20 3. PA40 5. PA60 6. PA61 7. BUKRS company code 3. PERSG employee group 4. PERSK employee sub group 5. BTRTL personal sub area department 6.

KOSTL department 8. SNAME employee full name 9. ENAME employee name 2. PERNR employee number 2. NACHN last name 3. VORNA first name 4. CNAME complete name 5. RUFNM nick name 6. ANRED title 7. GESCH gender 8. ANZKD number of children FAMST material status 3. STRAS street 4. ORT01 city 5. PSTLZ postal code 6. BANKS bank country name sbi, icici 3. BANKL bank key fct code 4. BANKN bank account number 5.

BEGDA start date 3. ENDDA end date 4. LGORT wage type salary type 5. BETRG amount 6. BEGDA retirement date 7.

FGBAT date of birth of family members 3. FAVOR first name 4. FANAM last name 5. SUBTY sub type 6. ARBGP name of employer google, tcs 3. ORT01 city 4. BRANK industry 5. TAETE job of employee 9. NMF01 value blood group 3. NMF02 value height ����.. USRTY communication type phone, email 3. USRID communication number ITC01 investment code 3.

PIN01 investment amount 4. ITC02 investment code 5. LDATE logical date 3. LTIME logical time AWART absence type 3. ABWTG absence days 4. AWART attendance type 5. ABWTG attendance days 6. ABRTG payroll days TRFGR pay scale group 3. LGA01 wage type salary type DA 4.

BET01 amount for wage type salary type 5. Selection screen number is Rohini kumar SAP-ABAP Performance Tuning: In real time we should create programs according coding standards along with that our program should show good performance as per performance standards Topics in Performance Tuning: 1.

Runtime Analysis SE30 3. Extended program check SLIN 5. Code Inspector SCI 6. Get runtime field 7. Primary key fields, 2. Primary Index 2. On large tables 2. Table which are frequently access 3. Tables having more coloumns Ques: When you create index on tables? SQL statements operated in a program 2.

All embedded SQL operations on a table i. Performance time for tables 5. Duration 2. Object name 3. Operation 4. Number of records 5. The tables 2. Performance Checks 2. Security Checks 3. Syntax Checks 4. User Interface 5. Get matnr stlnr stlal from mast based on input 2. More than 50 objects 2. System landscape 3. Objects Ex: Material Ageing Report 3. Inputs 3. Outputs 3.

Events 5. Differences between Events 5. Flow of Events 5. Usage of Events 6. ALV Reporting 6. Field catalogs 6. Function modules 6.

Blocked ALV 6. Hierarchal Sequential ALV 6. Not Reusable 1. Reusable 2. Not based on real life 2. Based on real life not user friendly 3. No data security 3. High data security 4. No exception handling 4. Exception handling Features of Object Oriented Programming: 1. Inheritance 2. Polymorphism 3. Abstraction 4. Polymorphism: An identical object behaves differently in different different locations. Private 2. Protected 3.

Public Private: Attributes declared under private access specifier can be access only by the methods of that particular class Protected: Attributes declared under protected access specifier can be access by the methods of base class as well as derived class Public: Attributes declared under public access specifier can be access by any object in your program Note: Methods should be declared under public access specifier Types of Classes: 1.

Local class 2. Global class 3. Exception class 4. Unit Test class 5. Class Definition 2. Class Implementation 3. DATA: var1, var2. DATA: var3, var4. Class Execution: Under this section 1. Objects are defined 2. Objects are created 3. AT NEW kunnr. The fields will be same Fields: 1. BUKRS company code 2. KUNNR customer code 3. GJAHR financial year 6. BELNR accounting document number 7. BUDAT posting date 8.

BLDAT bill date 9. XBLNR reference document number BLART document type LIFNR vendor code 2. KUNNR customer code 4.

GJAHR financial year 7. BELNR accounting document number 8. BUDAT posting date 9. BLDAT bill date Cannot implement it 2. Method of a class implemented in class itself 3. BOM Bills of Materails 2. Routing 3. Demand 3. Time out exception 2. SQL statement exception 3. Division by zero exception 4. No convert number exception 5.

Type conflict exception 6. BCD overflow exception 7. Maintaining buttons 2. Exception coding 3. Hyperlinks �������.. MATNR material number 2. MENGE quantity 6. BWKEY plant 3. LBKUM total stock 4. SALK3 total value 5. What is the purpose of reports in real time? What are the three mandatory details for generating report? Ans: a. Input b. Processing Logic c. Output 3. What are the flow of events in ABAP reports? Default values in selection-screen 5. Texts on push buttons in selection-screen 6.

Why is it mandatory to use start-of-selection when we are writing initialization and at selection-screen? Ans: 8. What are the events in classical reporting? Ans: 7. What are the events in interactive reporting?

Ans: It triggers whenever user interacts with a list Ans: It returns list of contents selected by user from output list Ans: It returns current list index How to switch from 14 to 4 list in interactive reporting? What is the output of following code? How u can create dynamic selection screens in reports? How u can make a selection screen field in invisible mode? What are various events used on ALV reporting?

What are the function modules in ALV reporting? Ans: 1. How u can perform following operations in alvs: a. Editing field values? Using this option a field should be converted into change mode b. How to get hotspot on fields? How u can fix a column? How u can color a particular field? How u can remove zeros in alv output? How u can highlight a particular row in alv reporting? How u can create checkboxes? How u can perform auto totals and subtotals? How to debug background jobs?

Explain how hierarchal alvs works? What is the function module used for printing heading and logo in alv? KEY text for heading in 20 characters 6. What is event internal table in ALVS?

NAME name of event 4. FORM subroutine name How u can work with interactive alvs? Layout work area Which one u feel is the best? What is logical database reporting? How it is useful in realtime? What is the Function module used for Hierarichal alvs? Explain the function module of blocked alvs?

Explain one requirement where u used blocked alvs in realtime? How u can improve performance of programming? Give atleast 15 tips for the same? Mention some 30 system fields that u used on realtime? What are the system fields used on interactive reporting? Ans: 3. What are the pitfalls for for all entries keyword? How many times initialization and top-of-page triggers in report having 20 pages?

What is Code inspector? How it is useful in real time? Performance Checks 7. Security Checks 8. Syntax Checks 9. User Interface Programming Guidelines What is the functionality of HIDE keyword? Ans: It holds the records selected by user in interactive reporting How u can transfer data from alv reporting to MM01 Application? How u can create listbox in reports?

If there are 50 records i want message at 10th record then how to do you do. Ans: 51 Difference between sy-tabix,sy-index and sy-subrc Ans: How you can convert alv report to oo abap report, is there any possibilities?

Can we define select statements in end-of-selection event? I have internal table a b 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 when does "at new" event triggers at 'a' and 'b'? In interactive reports in 20th secondary list if double click what will happen? What are the abap runtime errors we have faced in reporting? Ans: In real time you will find number of exceptions Run time errors such as 8.

Time out exception 9. SQL statement exception Division by zero exception No convert number exception Type conflict exception BCD overflow exception What is the use of initialization event? We can initialize the input values in selection screen without initialization event also but why we are using initialization event?

Ans: Initialization Event triggers before selection-screen display Note: Use this event for initializing 1. After developing source code in development server how many reviews we will get for our source code. Tell me some Table and fields that u created in reports?

What is the toughest report u created, what difficulties u faced and how u overcome those? What is the use of SLIS type pool in abap reports?

What are Alv reports? How they are different from normal reports? Ans: ALV is advanced reporting with additional features of reporting 7. What are the various ways of creating buttons in selection screens? Ans: Page number: How indexing is helpful in resolving performance issues in reports? Explain with ur experience in real time? What is system landscape in ur company? Sap Query. How do you validate the selection criteria of report?

Executable program 2. Function group containing function modules 3. Interface pool 5. Class pool 6. Module pool 7. Subroutine pool 3Q: How many lists can be displayed through an interactive report?

Where n is variable. The ID , which can be up to 32 characters long, identifies the data in memory. Possibly, a page header occupies this line. Ans: A message can have five different types. These message types have the following effects during list processing: 1.

Ans: A stacked list is nothing but secondary list and is displayed on a full-size screen unless you have specified its coordinates using the window command. It is not deleted and you can return back to it using one of the standard navigation functions like clicking on the back button or the cancel button.

Ans: Yes, we can display a list in a pop-up screen using the command WINDOW with the additions starting at X1 Y1 and ending at X2 Y2 to set the upper-left and the lower-right corners where x1 y1 and x2 y2 are the coordinates.

Passing data automatically using system fields 2. Using statements in the program to fetch data 3. Passing list attributes 32Q: How can you manipulate the presentation and attributes of interactive lists? Scrolling through Interactive Lists. Setting the Cursor from within the Program. Modifying List Lines. Ans: Report Transaction 1. F4 help. Ans: Table fields: For table fields, field names and data types are defined. Foreign keys: Relationship between the table and the other tables are defined.

Technical settings: Data class and size category defines that what type of table to be created and how much space required. Indexes: Secondary indexes are created for a table for faster data selection. Again following are defined for a table fields: 1. Field name can be of maximum 16 characters in a table and must start with a letter. Key flag determines if a field should be the table key.

Field type depicts the data type of the field in the ABAP dictionary. Field length denotes the number of valid places in the field. Decimal places Number of places after decimal point for float type value. Short text describes the business meaning of the field. Also fields from other structures can be added to the table definition as include. It violently sweeps everything out of your house, so that new joy can find space to enter. It shakes the yellow leaves from the bough of your heart, so that fresh, green leaves can grow in their place.

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The Presentation layer communicates with the Application server, and the Application server is the 'brains' of an SAP system, where all the central processing takes place. The Application server is not just one system in itself, but can be made up of multiple instances of the processing system. The Application server, in turn, communicates with the Database layer.

The Database is kept on a separate server, mainly for performance reasons, but also for security, providing a separation between the different layers of the system. Communication happens between each layer of the system, from the Presentation layer, to the Application server, to the Database, and then back up the chain, through the Application server again, for further processing, until finally reaching the Presentation layer. However, it is common to find a Development system, a Testing system and a Production system: The reason for this is fairly simple.

All the initial development and testing is done on a Development system, which ensures other systems are not affected. Once developments are at a stage where they may be ready to be tested by an external source, or someone within the company whose role is to carry out testing, the developments are moved, using what is called a Transport System, to the next system here, the Testing system. Normally, no development at all is done on the testing system; it is just used for testing the developments from the development system.

If everything passes through the Testing system, a Transport system is used again to move the developments into the Production environment. When code enters the Production environment, this is the stage at which it is turned on, and used within the business itself. The landscape architecture is not separated just for development purposes; the company may have other reasons. This could be the quantity of data in the Production system, which may be too great to be used in the development environment normally the Development and Testing systems are not as large as the Production system, only needing a subset of data to test on.

Also, it could be for security reasons. More often than not, companies do not want developers to see live production data, for data security reasons for example, the system could include employee data or sales data, which a company would not want people not employed in those areas to see. Normally, then, the Development and Testing systems would have their own set of data to work with. The three systems described here, normally, are a minimum.

It can increase to four systems, perhaps with the addition of a Training system, or perhaps multiple projects are running simultaneously, meaning there may be two separate Development systems, or Testing systems, even perhaps a Consolidation system before anything is passed to the Production environment. This is all, of course, dependent on the company, but commonly each system within the Landscape architecture will have its own Application server and its own Database server, ensuring platform independence.

Within an SAP system, or at least the example used here, there are two types of programs, Reports and D p o s. Reports, as the name would suggest, are programs which generate lists of data. They may involve a small amount of interactivity, but mainly they supply data to the front-end interfaces, the SAP GUI and so on. When a user runs a report, they typically get a selection screen. Once they enter their selection parameters and execute the report, they normally cannot intervene in the execution of the program.

The program runs, and then displays the output. D p o s are slightly different. The user determines the flow of the program itself by choosing which buttons or fields to interact with on the screen.

Their action then triggers different functions which have been coded within the flow logic of the program. While reports are being created, interfaces are also to be generated which are classed as Dynpro s, for all the selection criteria. Most of the work done by people involved with ABAP is done within Report programs, and even though these programs are labelled 'Reports', they do not always generate output.

The Report programs are there to process the logic, reading and writing to the Database, in order to make the system work. Work Processes themselves work independently of the computer's operating system and the Database that it interacts with, giving the independence discussed earlier with regard to the Technical architecture.

When an SAP system is initially set up, the basis consultants who install the system, keep it running, manage all the memory and so on configure SAP in such a way that it automatically sets the number of Work Processes programs use when they start, the equivalent of setting up a pre-defined number of channels or connections to the Database system itself, each of which tend to have their own set of properties and functions.

The Dispatcher You might come across something referred to as the Dispatcher. The SAP system has no technical limits as to the number of users who can log on and use it, generally the number of users who can access an SAP system is much larger than the number of available Work Processes the system is configured for. This is because not everybody is sending instructions to the Application server at exactly the same time.

Because of this, users cannot be assigned a certain number of processes while they are logged on. The Dispatcher controls the distribution of the Work Processes to the system users. The Dispatcher keeps an eye on how many Work Processes are available, and when a user triggers a transaction, the Dispatcher's job is to provide that user with a Work Process to use.

The Dispatcher tries to optimise things as far as possible, so that the same Work Process receives the sequential Dialogue steps of an application. It is the Work Process which executes an application, and it is the Work Process which has access to the memory areas that contain all of the data and objects an application uses. It also makes three very important elements available. The first is the Dynpro processor. All Dynpro programs have flow and processing logic, and it is the Dynpro processor's job to handle the flow logic.

It responds to the user's interactions, and controls the further flow of the program depending on these interactions. It is responsible for Dialogue control and the screen itself, but it is important to remember that it cannot perform calculations; it is purely there to manage the flow logic of a program.

The next important element is the ABAP processor, which is responsible for the processing logic of the programs. It receives screen entries from the Dynpro processor, and transmits the screen output to the program.

It is the ABAP processor which can perform the logical operations and arithmetical calculations in the programs.

It can check authorisations, and read and write to the Database, over the Database Interface. What this means is that a set of ABAP statements can be used that, in turn, can communicate with any type of Database that has been installed when the system was set up.

The great advantage of this is that the ABAP statements have encapsulation, meaning the programmers do not need to know which physical Database system the ABAP system they are using actually supports. There are times when you may want to use a specific SQL statement native to the database which is installed.

ABAP is designed in such a way that if this type of coding is necessary, this facility is available. It is possible to directly access the Database through the programs using native SQL statements, but this is not encouraged. Normally, when systems are set up, the system administrator will forbid these practices, due to the security and stability risks to the system which may be introduced.

If you are going to be programming ABAP, make sure Open SQL is used, because then anyone subsequently looking at the programs will understand what is trying to be achieved. But before doing so, let's take a look at the structure of an ABAP program.

Like many other programming languages, ABAP programs are normally structured into two parts. The first is what is considered to be the Declaration section. This is where you define the data types, structures, tables, work area variables and the individual fields to be used inside the programs.

This is also where you would declare global variables that will be available throughout the individual subsections of the program.

These sections are commonly referred to as internal Processing Blocks. The Declaration part of the program is where you define the parameters used for the selection screens for the reports. Once you have declared tables, global variables and data types in the Declaration section of the program, then comes the second part of the ABAP program, where all of the logic for the program will be written.

The Processing Blocks defined within programs can be called from the Dynpro processor, which were discussed previously, depending on the specific rules created within the program. These Processing Blocks are almost always just small sections of programming logic which allow the code to be encapsulated. The way the SAP GUI looks may vary, the menu to the side may be different, but here the display show a minimal menu tree which will be used throughout this book.

To access this, you use the menu on the left hand side. There are two ways to do this. Firstly, if the overview folder is opened, any item which does not look like a folder itself, is a transaction which can be run. It is now possible to become familiar with them, and enter them directly into the transaction code input area: Now, a step-by-step look will be taken through the major transactions of the ABAP Workbench to become familiar with, and use, as an ABAP developer.

The ABAP Workbench has a transaction to allow the creation of Database tables, view the fields which make up these tables and browse the data inside. The ABAP Editor is where all of the code is created, the logic built and, by using forward navigation a function within an SAP system which will be discussed later , function modules defined, screens created and so on. Its main function is to define specific tasks that can be called from any other program.

Interfaces are created in the Function Builder, where the different data elements and different types of tables are defined, that can be passed to and from the Function which is built. The Function Builder will be discussed a little later on, when the programs created are encapsulated into function modules.

Menu Painter The next item to look at here is called the Menu Painter, which can be found in the 'User Interface' folder inside the 'Development' menu, or with transaction code SE This is a tool which can be used to generate menu options, buttons, icons, menu bars, transaction input fields, all of which can trigger events within the program. You can define whether events are triggered using a mouse click, or with a keyboard-based shortcut.

It allows you to define the whole interface which the user will eventually use, and behind the initial elements that are put on the screen, you can also define the individual functions which are called when the user interacts with them. Object Navigator The last item to look at here is the Object Navigator, a tool which brings together all the previous tools, providing a highly efficient environment in which to develop programs.

When building large programs, with many function modules, many screens, the Object Navigator is the ideal tool to use to navigate around the development. In the SAP menu tree, there are evidently many more transactions which can be used to help develop programs, but these cover the vast majority of development tools which will be used.

This is the main tool used to look at, understand and enhance the Database and Database tables which are used by the SAP system. You can view standard tables delivered by SAP using this tool, create new tables and enhance the existing tables delivered by SAP with new fields. There are many other features involved in the Data Dictionary, but the focus here will be on the basic ones so as to build on this later on when creating ABAP programs.

First, a database table will be created, involving the creation of fields, data elements and domains. An explanation of what each of these is, and why they are necessary to the tables built will be given. During the building of the tables, the tools used to check for errors will be shown. Once these errors are eradicated, the tables can be activated so that they can be used within the system.

After this, a look will be taken at maintaining the technical settings of the table created, which will allow the entry of data, before finally looking at the data which has been entered using standard SAP transactions available in the SAP system.

This is done via the Tools menu. In this exercise a transparent table will be created. Other types of table do exist such a cluster tables and pool tables , but at this early stage the transparent table variety is the important one to focus upon.

The table name must adhere to the customer-defined name space, meaning that the name must begin with the letter Z or Y, most commonly this will be Z.

Nearly all development work done with SAP is usually done within a development environment, before being moved on to, for example, a quality assurance environment and on further to production.

This window allows you to choose the appropriate Development class which is supported by other systems where the work may be moved on to. Creating Fields The next step is to begin creating Field names for the table, in the 'Fields' tab: Fields, unlike the name of the table, can begin with any letter of the alphabet, not just Z and Y and can contain up to 16 characters.

An Initial value can be assigned to each field, for example, in the case of a field called Employee Class you could say the majority of employees are Regular Staff 'S' , but some are Directors, with a code of 'D'. The standard initial value would be 'S', but the user could change some of these to a 'D' later on. Data Elements Every Field in the table is made up of what is called a Data Element, which defines specific attributes of each field.

The first Field to be created here is an important one within an SAP system, and identifies the client which the records are associated with. This Data Element already exists in the system, and after entering it, the system automatically fills in the Data Type, the Length, Number of Decimals and Short text for the Data Element itself. Ensure that the 'Client' field is made a Key field in the table by checking the 'Key' box. The next field will be called 'Employee'.

Once this is done, click the save button. To do this, forward navigation is used. Double-click the new Data Element, and a window labelled 'Create Data element' appears.

Answer 'Yes' to this, and the 'Maintain Data Element' window comes up. Next, the Elementary data type, called the 'Domain', must be defined for the new Data element. Domains must adhere to the customer name space, so in this instance the same name as the Data element will be given: 'ZEENUM', though giving both the same name is not imperative.

Again, forward navigation will be used to create the Domain. Choose 'Yes' to create the Domain, and in the window which appears, type into the 'Short text' box a description of the Domain. The first available field here is 'Data type', click inside the box and select the drop-down menu, and a number of generic data types already existing within the ABAP dictionary will appear. O e this sele tio is dou le-clicked, it will appear in the 'Data type' area in the 'Definition' tab.

Next, in the 'No. An Output length of 8 should be selected, and then press Enter. The 'NUMC' field's description should re-appear, confirming that this is a valid entry. Next, select the 'Value range' tab, which is visible next to the 'Definition' tab just used: This is where you set valid value ranges for the Domain created.

Here, there are three options. First, where you can see 'Single values', it is possible to enter a list of individual valid values which can be entered by the user. Second, 'Intervals', where you can enter a lower and upper limit for valid values, for example 1 and 9, which saves the effort of entering 9 individual single values in the 'Single values' section.

Last, the 'Value table' box visible at the bottom. When there are a large number of possible entries, this is a common method to do this you must specify a complete valid value table entry list, in which case it is also necessary to introduce foreign keys to the table, to ensure the user's entries are tested against the value stored in the value table created.

This example Domain, however, does not require any Value range entry, so just click the save button and, again, assign it as a 'Local object'. The next step is to Activate the object, allowing other Data elements to use this domain going forward. A pop-up window appears, listing the 3 currently inactive objects: It may be possible to activate all of the objects together, but this is not advised. In a typical development environment, a number of people will be creating developments simultaneously, and quite often, others' objects will appear in this list.

When this is highlighted, click the green tick continue button. Forward navigation was used for generating the Domain, so click the 'Back' button, or press F3 to return to the 'Maintain Data Element' screen. As the domain is active, the description entered previously should appear by the area where 'ZEENUM' was typed, along with other Domain properties which have been created: Next, the Field labels must be created, so click that tab.

The Field labels entered here will appear as field labels in the final table. In this example they should read 'Employee', or better, 'Employee Number'. If this does not fit within the area given, just tailor it so that it still makes sense, for example typing 'Employee N' into the 'Short' Field label box.

The inactive objects window will reappear, where two inactive objects will remain. Again, the status bar should display 'Object s activated'. Press the back button to return to the Table maintenance screen. Next, the same practices will be used to create four additional fields. This time it should not be selected as a Key field, so do not check the box. The 'Maintain Data Element' window will appear which will be familiar from the previous steps. The Domain maintenance screen will reappear. The number of characters and output length should both be set to 40, then press enter to be sure everything has worked, and click the Activate button.

The status bar should read 'Object saved and activated'. Following this, click Back or F3 to return to the Maintain Data element screen. Ensure the domain attributes have appeared Short text, Data type, Length and so on. Click to create the Data element and follow the steps above again. Save this and choose 'Yes' to create the domain. The domain's short text should read 'Forename'. Next, Activate the Domain as before. Return to the Maintain Data Element screen. Type 'Forename' into the four Field label boxes.

This time the Length and Output length will be The Field labels should all read 'Title'. Activate all of these and go back to view the new, fifth field in the Table. The final field which will be created for this table is for Date of Birth. Activate the Domain and Data element, and return to the table.

Technical Settings Once this has been saved, the next step is to move on to maintaining the technical settings of the Table. Before creating the final Database table, SAP will need some more information about the table being created. Here, it is important to tell the system what Data class is to be used, so select the drop down button.

There are five different options, with accompanying descriptions. For this table, select the first, labelled 'APPL0', and double-click it: For the 'Size category' field, again click the drop-down button. Here, you have to make an estimate as to the amount of data records which will be held within the table so that the system has some idea of how to create the tables in the underlying database. Here, 'Buffering not allowed' should be selected: This prevents the table contents from being loaded into memory for reading, stopping the table from being read in advance of the selection of the records in the program.

You may, correctly, point out that it may be advantageous to hold the table in the memory for speed efficiency, but in this example, this is not necessary. If speed was an issue in a development, buffering would then be switched on, ensuring the data is read into memory. In the case of large tables which are accessed regularly but updated infrequently, this is the option to choose.

Nothing else on the 'Maintain Technical Settings' screen needs to be filled at this point, so click Save and then go back to the table itself. If all of this is successful, then the table should now be in a position to be activated and the entry of records can begin.

Click the Activate icon to activate the table and check the status bar, which should again read 'Object Activated'. To do this, enter the 'Utilities' menu, scroll to 'Table contents', and then 'Create Entries': A Data-entry screen will appear which has automatically been generated from the table created. The field names correspond here to the technical names given when we created them. To change these to the Field labels which we set up, enter the 'Settings' menu and select 'User Parameters'.

This facility allows you to tailor how tables look for your own specific user ID. Next, click the 'Reset' button above the data entry fields to clear the fields for the next entry. Note that this time the Date of Birth has been filled in without the appropriate dividers. Having entered several data records in the manner discussed previously, click the Back key to return to the 'Dictionary: Display Table' screen.

The selection screen is very useful when you have lots of data in your table. In this case, though, only five records have been entered, so this is unnecessary.

However, for example if you were to only want to focus on a single employee number, or a small range, these figures can be selected from this screen: To view all of the records, do not enter any data here. Just click the 'Execute' button, which is displayed in the top left corner of the image above, or use the shortcut F8.

If you want to see all of the data for one record, double-click on the record and this will be shown. Alternatively, several records can be scrolled through by selecting the desired records via the check-boxes to the left of the 'Client' column and then clicking the 'Choose' icon on the toolbar: These can then be individually viewed and scrolled through with the 'Next entry' button: To return to the full table then, simply click the Back button, or press F3. Double-click to execute. A note to begin: it is advisable to keep the programs created as simple as possible.

Do not make them any more complicated than is necessary. This way, when a program is passed on to another developer to work with, fix bugs and so on, it will be far easier for them to understand. Add as many comments as possible to the code, to make it simpler for anyone who comes to it later to understand what a program is doing, and the flow of the logic as it is executed.

The program name must adhere to the customer naming conventions, meaning that here it must begin with the letter Z. I the Title o , t pe a des iptio of hat the p og a ill do. The O igi al language should be set to EN, English by default, just check this, as it can have an effect on the text entries displayed within certain programs. Any text entries created within the program are language-specific, and can be maintained for each country using a translation tool.

This will not be examined at length here, but is something to bear in mind. I the Att i utes se tio of the i do , fo the T pe , li k the d op-down menu and sele t E e uta le p og a , ea i g that the p og a a e e e uted ithout the use of a transaction code, and also that it can be run as a background job. These t o optio s help to manage the program within the SAP system itself, describing what the program will be used for, and also the program development status.

For now, the other fields below these should be left empty. Particularly ensure that the Edito Lock o is left lea sele tio of this ill p e e t the p og a f o ei g edited. U i ode he ks a ti e should e sele ted, as should Fi ed poi t a ith eti without this, any packed-decimal fields in the program will be rounded to whole numbers. Once this is achieved, the coding screen is reached. Code Editor Here, focus will be put on the coding area.

The first set of lines visible here are comment lines. These seven lines can be used to begin commenting the program. In ABAP, comments can appear in two ways.

If it appears in the second column or beyond, the text will cease to be a comment. Whe e this is used, everything to the right again becomes a comment.

This means that it is possible to add comments to each line of a program, or at least a few lines of comments for each section.

The statement is followed by the program name which was created previously. The line is then terminated with a full stop visible to the left of the comment. Every statement in ABAP must be followed by a full stop, or period. It is this period which marks where the statement finishes. If you require help with a statement, place the cursor within the statement and choose the Help o Click the continue button and the system will display help on that particular statement, giving an explanation of what it is used for and the syntax.

The menu tree to the left hand side on this screen allows you to view example code, which o es o ode a late e ased upo. The write statement will, as you might expect, write whatever is in quotes after it to the output window there are a number of additions which can be made to the write statement to help format the text, which we will return in a later chapter.

The , li k the A ti ate utto , hi h should add the o d A ti e next to the program name. The first step toward doing this is to include a ta le s statement in the program, which will be placed below the REPORT statement.

This table structure will include all of the fields previously created, allowing the records from the table to be read and stored in a temporary structure for the program to use. To retrieve from our data dictionary table and place them into the table structure, the SELECT statement will be used.

Now we ha e eated a sele t loop let s do so ethi g ith the data e ha e are looping through. To he k this, open a new session via the New Session button in the toolbar. The system has automatically put each line from the table on a new row.

The WRITE statement in the program did not know that each row was to be output on a new line; this was forced by some of the default settings within the system regarding screen settings, making the line length correspond to the width of the screen. If you try to print the report, it could be that there are too many columns or characters to fit on a standard sheet of A4.

Here, the line will be limited to 40 characters. Having done this, see what difference it has made to the output window. For a standard sheet of A4 this limit will usually be characters. When the limit is set to this for the example table here, the full ta le etu s, ut the li e e eath the title My Employee List Report displa s the poi t at hi h the output is limited: Next, the program will be enhanced somewhat, by adding specific formatting additions to the WRITE statement.

First, a line break will be inserted at the beginning of every row that is output. This will trigger a line break: Save and execute the code. The output window should now look like this: The first SELECT loop has created the first five rows, and the second has output the next five. Both look identical. The first four records were output on the first line. The 5th record appears on a line of its own followed by the second set of five records, having had a line break forced before each record was output.

This means underline. This ill ean that a new line will be output at the end of the previous line. This can have a number added to it to specify how many lines to skip, in this case 2. If you press F1 to access the documentation window it will explain further, including the ability to skip to a specific line.

Comments have been added to help differentiate the examples. This time, instead of outputting entire rows of the table, individual fields will be output. Afte the ze plo ees-su a e field change the period. Change the second period. This is how we chain statements together and can also be used for a number of other statements too. Execute the code, and the output should appear exactly the same as before. Copy Your Program Let s ow switch focus a little and look at creating fields within the program.

There are two types of field to look at here, Variables and Constants. This can be done either with the steps from the previous section, or by copying a past program.

The latter option is useful if you plan on reusing much of your previous code. The next screen will ask if any other objects are to be copied. Since none of the objects here have been created in the first program, leave these blank, and click Copy. The C eate O je t Di e to E t s ee will then reappear and, as before you should assign the e t to Lo al o je t.

Now click the Change button to enter the coding screen. The copy function will have retained the previous report name in the comment space at the top of your program and in the initial REPORT statement, so it is important to remember to update these. This will automatically comment the li es sele ted. The sele ted ode is o o e ted to comment: Delete most of the code from the program now, retaining one section to continue working with.

Declaring Variables A field is a temporary area of memory which can be given a name and referenced within programs. Fields may be used within a program to hold calculation results, to help control the logic flow and, because they are temporary areas of storage usually held in the RAM , a e a essed e fast, helpi g to speed up the p og a s e e utio.

The e a e, of course, many other uses for fields. A variable is a field, the values of which change during the program execution, hence of course the term variable. There are some rules to be followed when dealing with variables: They must begin with a letter.

When creating variables, it is useful to ensure the name given is meaningful. Naming variables things like A1, A2, A3 and so on is only likely to cause confusion when others o e to o k ith the p og a. Variables are declared using the DATA statement. The first variable to be declared here will be an integer field. Below the section of code remaining in your program, type the statement DATA followed by a name for the field - integer Then, the data type must be declared using the word TYPE and for integers this is referred to by the letter i.

Terminate the statement with a period. A packed decimal field is there to help store numbers with decimal places. It is possible to specify the number of decimal places you want to store. Afte the p , t pe the o d decimals and then the number desired, in this instance, 2 packed decimal can store up to 14 decimal places. These types of variables have a fixed length in ABAP, so it is not necessary to declare how long the variables need to be.

This a , you can ensure subsequent variables take on exactly the same properties as a previously created one. If you are creating a large number of variables of the same data type, by using the LIKE addition, a lot of time can be saved. If, for example, the DECIMALS part were to need to change to 3, it would then only be necessary to change the number of decimals on the original variable, not all of them individually: Additionally, the LIKE addition does not only have to refer to variables, or fields, within the program.

It can also refer to fields that exist in tables within the SAP system. When defining the data type use the LIKE addition followed by zemployees-surname. Defining fields this way saves you from having to remember the exact data type form every field you have to create in the SAP system.

Check this for syntax errors to make sure everything is correct. With another addition which can be made to the DATA statement, one can declare initial values for the variables defined in the program. For packed decimal fields the process is slightly different. Note that one is not just limited to positive numbers. If you want to declare a value of a negative number, this is entirely possible: Constants A constant is a variable whose associated value cannot be altered by the program during its execution, hence the name.

When writing code then, the constant can only ever be referred to; its value can never change. If you do try to change a Constant s value within the program, this will usually result in a runtime error. The syntax for declaring constants is very similar to that of declaring variables, though there are a few differences. Use the name myconstant01 for this example.

Give it a type p as before with 1 decimal place and a value of. Copy and paste and try another with the name myconstant02, this time a sta da d i tege t pe i ith a alue of 6: A note: one cannot define constants for data types XSTRINGS, references, internal tables or structures containing internal tables. This chapter will begin by looking at some of the simple arithmetical calculations within ABAP. Our program will be tidied up by removing the two constants which were just created.

If a program needs to add two numbers together and each number is stored as its own unique variable, the product of the two numbers can be stored in a brand new variable titled esult.

This ensures that only the esult a ia le ill e updated i the e e utio. If the a ia le titled esult had ee assigned a value prior to the calculation, this would be overwritten with the new value. This applies to all arithmetical operators, including parentheses , which will start to be used as the calculations become more complicated. Note that one space is the minimum, and multiple spaces can be used, which may help in lining code up to make it more readable, and indeed where calculations may be defined over many lines of code.

Copy and paste the previous calculation and make this change. One can see by doing this the way that changing the initial variable will alter the calculation. The syntax for these is slightly different. Ignore the comment line in the image : While this is a legitimate method for calculations, it must be added that this is very rarely used, as the initial method is much simpler.

It is the responsibility of the programmer to ensure the data types used are compatible with one another when used for calculations or moving data to and from objects. One should not attempt calculations with variables and numbers which do not match. For example, a variable defined as an integer cannot be multiplied by a character, as these two data types are incompatible.

This would cause the system to generate syntax and runtime errors when the program is executed. While SAP has built in automatic data type conversions for many of the standard data types within ABAP, there are scenarios where the inbuilt conversion rules are not appropriate. It is important to become familiar with the inbuilt conversion rules and know when to manipulate the data prior to using them in calculations. Here, some examples of conversion rules will be given, so that they can be used throughout programs created.

Conversion rules are pre-defined logic that determine how the contents of the source field can be entered into a target field. If one attempts to insert an integer field containing the value of 1 to a character string, the built-in conversion rules will determine exactly how this should be done without any syntax or runtime errors. Then create another variable with the name result1 of t pe i i tege.

The o e sio rule here would round the number to the closest integer, in this case 3. Division Variations Now, a slight step back will be taken to discuss the division operator further. In ABAP, there are three ways in which numbers can be divided: The standard result with decimal places The remainder result The integer result. The standard form of division. C eate a ia les, numa a d numb , ith alues of 5. Execute the program. The integer form of division.

Copy the initial calculation; ha ge the i itial a ia les to numc a d numd a d the esulti g a ia le to result3.

This ill gi e the esult of the al ulatio s i tege alue, ithout the decimal places. Follo the steps f o the i tege fo , this ti e ith nume , numf a d result4. Fo this type of division, the arithmetical operator should be MOD. This, when executed, will show the remainder value. When creating programs, fields defined as char- acter strings are almost always used.

In SAP, there are two elementary data types used for character strings. These are data type C, and data type N. Data type C. Data type C variables are used for holding alphanumeric characters, with a minimum of 1 character and a maximum of 65, characters.

By default, these are aligned to the left. Begin this chapter by creating a new program. C eate a e DATA field, a e this mychar a d, ithout a spa es follo i g this, gi e a number for the length of the field in parentheses.

Because this field is a generic data type, the system has default values which can be used so as to avoid typing out the full length of the declaration. If you eate a e field, a ed mychar2 and wish the field to be 1 character in size, the default field size is set to 1 character by default, so the size in brack- ets following the name is unnecessary. Also, because this character field is the default type used by the system, one can even avoid defining this.

In the case of mychar2, the variable can be defined with only the field name. This de la atio a e epli ated within the ABAP program: Return to the program, and in place of mycha , eate a e field a ed zemploy- ees1 , ith a le gth of 40 and type c. This will have exactly the same effect as the previous declaration. Referring back to previous chapter, another way of doing this would be to use the LIKE statement to declare zemployees or this time zemployees2 as having the same p ope ties as the su a e field i the ta le: Data type N.

The other common generic character string data type is N. These are by default right- aligned. If one looks at the initial table again, using forward navigation, the field named e plo ee , hi h efe s to e plo ee u e s, is of the data t pe NUMC, ith a le gth of 8.

NUMC, or the number data type, works similarly to the character data type, except with the inbuilt rule to only allow the inclusion of numeric characters. This data type, then, is ideal when the field is only to be used for numbers with no intention of carrying out cal- culations. Again, alternatively this can be done by using the LIKE statement to refer back to the original field in the table. The sele t the desti atio hi h the output st i g should go to, he e d1. As an example, observe the code in the image below.

The fourth is the separator field, here again alled sep the size of sep has ot ee defi ed he e, a d so it ill take o the default which the system uses - ha a te. The last field is titled desti atio , ha a te s long and of data type c. Executing this code will output the following: Note that the text has been aligned to the left, as it is using data type c.

Often an ABAP program will have to deal with large text fields, with unwanted spaces. Find the Length of a String To find the length of a string, a function rather than a statement is used.

Added beneath the p e ious data fields he e, is a e o e titled len , ith a TYPE i, so as to just hold the integer value of the string length. All o u e es of o a s ould e epla ed by making use of a while loop, which will be discussed later on. Search Next, a look will be taken at searching for specific character strings within fields. Then the string which is to be searched for, for example, Joe : Note that here no variable has been declared to hold the result.

The fi st is sy-subrc , hi h ide tifies hethe the sea h as su essful o ot, a d the se o d is sy-fdpos , hi h, if the sea h is su - cessful, is set to the position of the character string searched for in surname2. Below, a small report is created to show the values of the system variables.

The Search statement will ignore the blank spaces. The output will show the string being searched for, followed by the system variables and the value results. In this case, the search should be successful. He e, the sea h ill e u su essful, as the o d Joe i the Surname2 field is not followed by four blank spaces. This, agai , should e su essful. The failure of the second search means that a 0 is displayed in the sy-fdpos field.

Shift The SHIFT statement is a simple statement that allows one to move the contents of a cha a te st i g left o ight, ha a te ha a te.

I this e a ple, a field s o te ts ill be moved to the left, deleting leading zeros. Define that it is to be shifted to the left, deleting leading zeros do t fo get the help screen can be used to view similar additions which can be added to this state- ment.

Following this, the INTO then specifies the fields which the split field is to be written to. The slightly odd positioning of the spaces in the alue of st i g ill, he the state e t is output, ake lea the a that the SPLIT statement populates the fields which the data is put into. Additionally, on closer inspection there are blank spaces following the numbers in each field up to its de- fined length, which is While the contents are still to be split into 3 fields, the data suggests it should be split into 4.

In this case, with less fields than those defined, the system will include the remainder of the string in the final field. Note that if this field is not long enough for the remainder, the re- sult would be truncated. This is referred to as processing subfields, he e a spe ifi ha a te s positio ithi its field is referenced. The results should look like this: Subfields are regularly used in SAP to save time on creating unnecessary variables in memory.

It is just as easy to use the subfield syntax. It will also show ways to highlight logic bugs in programs that cannot be identified by the syntax checker. The first step here is to load a program which has been used previously, and which ac- cesses the database table which has been created regarding employee records. When this opens, a blue arrow should be visible, pointing at the first line of code in the program: An alternative way of starting a debugging session is to display the code itself from the initial screen, select a line of code and set a breakpoint.

This is done by, having selected a line, clicking the Stop icon: This sets a breakpoint for that line. When the program is then executed the execution will pause highlighting the line that has the Breakpoint set entering the debugging session. Static which will be ex- amined later and dynamic. A dynamic breakpoint is the kind which was used above, and these are only valid for the current session.

A breakpoint can also be set by double- clicking any statement within the debugging session itself. To then remove these in the session, simple double-click the stop icon appearing adjacent to them. You will notice that a number of buttons appear at the top of the debugging screen: These buttons allow for different modes of the ABAP debugger to be entered.

The default mode here is Fields. As one presses the button, the blue arrow on the left of the code will move down one line at a time. The next button alo g is the E e ute utto , ith a sho t ut of F. This allo s fo i de- pendent sections of code to be executed, such as function modules or forms. This can be very useful. These can then be executed independently, while other parts are debugged to find specific problems. This a e e useful if o e fo gets to use the E e ute fu tio. If o e goes th ough the li es of a p og a step-by-step, using the F5 key to step into a working function module, which may contain many lines of code, it is likely the case that it does not need to be debugged because you know this function module already exists.

Pressing the F5 key endlessly to go through the lines of code here is unnecessary when one wants to step out of this function module and access the parts hi h e ui e de uggi g. The fou th i the o is the Co ti ue optio F. This allows one to continue the pro- gram without going through step-by-step, line-by-line. When this button is pressed, the program executes and the output screen is shown. This button can also be used to just access a selected line of code, where the cursor is positioned.

If one positions the cursor in a line of code and presses continue, the blue arrow in the debugger will appear directly next to that line. If you then press continue again, the program will be executed. This takes you to the output screen as it currently stands within the debug session. Here, the code has been executed to output the result of the first SELECT statement in the program: This function allows you to see the results of the reports whilst the program is in mid-flow.

Wat hpoi ts ill e etu ed to soon. This can be accessed either by double-clicking the field a e ithi the ode itself, o e te i g it i to the Field a es se tio elo the code: Note that, since here a table is involved, in the field name section the name of the table must first be specified, followed by a -, then the name of the field. The field contents will be filled in automatically. As you step through code line-by-line in the SELECT loop, the text held in each field will change as each loop completes and moves onto the next record in the table.

This section allows for 8 fields to be monitored at any time. Fields 5 - 8 can be made visible via the navigation buttons in the middle to the right of the numbers 1 � 4. Often when debugging a program, you may want to manually change the contents of fields.

This can be achieved by replacing the text in the field contents area, then clicking the Cha ge field o te ts i o , a ked ith a pe il. These are system fields, belonging to a table called SYST. This system table in- cludes many system fields which are filled in at runtime.

These system fields are filled in automatically while the program is executed. Most statements within ABAP will cause these system fields to be filled with 0 when executed successfully. It is important to re- member that these fields are completely statement-dependent, meaning that they will contain different values depending on which statement is executed. These system codes and variables will be looked at in greater depth later.

Table Mode The second mode along from the Fields button on the left of the screen is Table mode. Click this button and the code remains, but the otto se tio ha ges to i lude a In- te al ta le e t , a d a si gle o : Internal tables have not yet been covered in depth, but, put simply; an internal table is a table of records which is stored in memory while the program is running.

Table mode al- lows one to interrogate the records and fields of each record in an internal table. If one does this for ze plo ees , the , a e i do appea s, displa i g the ta le name, its individual fields and their contents: Things do look slightly different to normal here, as a table structure is being shown, rather than an actual internal table.

This results in the debugger showing the table structure as above, listing the individual fields numbered 1 � 6 and their contents.

When viewing an internal table in this mode, one will see a number of records for each internal table with their contents. These records can then be double-clicked to move to the above layout, showing the individual fields for each record. This will be returned to later. In this screen, the code remains, but the area in which it is displayed is very small. One can continue to interrogate the code line-by-line as before still, but this may prove difficult.

It is usually simpler to check Table mode for the information required, and then click back to Fields mode to continue the debug session. This allows you to see a list of the individual breakpoints which have been set. Double-clicking any breakpoint in the Breakpoints table will remove that breakpoint from the list: This breakpoint table can be very useful, particularly when one is in a large program with many breakpoints set.

It allows one to review the breakpoint, and allows for the removal of breakpoints which are no longer desired. Did they Research on Teaching and Learning Probability. This book summarizes the vast amount of research related to teaching and learning probability that has been conducted for more than 50 years in a variety of disciplines. It begins with a synthesis of the most important probability interpretations throughout history: intuitive, classical, frequentist, subjective, logical propensity and axiomatic vie International Comparative Studies in Mathematics.

It argues that the main purpose of educational research is to improve student learning, and that international comparative studies are no exception Inquiry-Based Learning - Undergraduate Research. This book deals with the relevance of recognition and validation of non-formal and informal learning in education and training, the workplace and society.

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