Want to make it even easier to get premium apps? Apps for gamers Show all. News about the App Store. Best entertainment apps Show all. Security for every app. Explore in-app events like movie premieres, gaming competitions, and livestreams.
Oh yes, in addition to these features that lean on big conceptual additions to Java, we also explain the many other useful Java 8 features and updates such as default methods, the new Optional class, CompletableFuture, and the new Date and Time API.
And there are the Java 9 additions: a new module system, support for reactive programming via the Flow API, and various other enhancements. Most chapters include several quizzes to help you work through the material. The first part of the book provides the fundamentals to help you get started with the new Java ideas introduced in Java 8. Chapter 3 gives a full explanation, with code examples and quizzes at every step, of the concepts of lambda expressions and method references.
The second part of this book is a deep exploration of the new Streams API, which lets you write powerful code that processes a collection of data in a declarative way. Chapter 5 investigates in detail the stream operations available to express sophisticated data-processing queries. Chapter 6 covers collectors�a feature of the Streams API that lets you express even more complex data-processing queries.
The third part of this book explores various Java 8 and Java 9 topics that will make you more effective at using Java and will enhance your codebase with modern idioms. Because it is oriented toward more-advanced programming ideas we have arranged, nothing later in the book depends on the techniques described here. It covers using collection factories and learning new idiomatic patterns to work with List and Set collections along with idiomatic patterns involving Map.
Chapter 9 explores how you can improve your existing code using new Java 8 features and a few recipes. In addition, it explores vital software-development techniques such as design patterns, refactoring, testing, and debugging. Chapter 10 is also new for the second edition. This is not only a powerful way of designing APIs but one which is both becoming increasingly popular and is already appearing in the Java classes such as Comparators, Stream, and Collectors.
We start with two APIs introduced in Java 8. Optional class, which allows you to both design better APIs and reduce null pointer exceptions. Chapter 17 is again new to this second edition and explores the Java 9 Flow API in detail, focusing on practical reactive programming code. In the sixth and final part of this book, we draw back a little with a tutorial introduction to writing effective functional-style programs in Java, along with a comparison of Java 8 features with those of Scala.
Chapter 19 covers more advanced functional programming techniques including higher-order functions, currying persistent data structures, lazy lists, and pattern matching. You can view this chapter as a mix of practical techniques to apply in your codebase as well as academic information that will make you a more knowledgeable programmer. Finally, there are four appendixes, which cover a number of other topics related to Java 8. Appendix B gives an overview of other main additions to the Java library that you may find useful.
Appendix C is a continuation of part 2 and looks at advanced uses of streams. Appendix D explores how the Java compiler implements lambda expressions behind the scenes. About the code All source code in listings or in text is in a fixed-width font like this to separate it from ordinary text. Code annotations accompany many of the listings, highlighting important concepts.
Both links to the source code may be found at www. Book forum Purchase of Modern Java in Action includes free access to a private web forum run by Manning Publications where you can make comments about the book, ask technical questions, and receive help from the authors and from other users.
It is not a commitment to any specific amount of participation on the part of the authors, whose contribution to the forum remains voluntary and unpaid.
We suggest you try asking the authors some challenging questions lest their interest stray! Raoul was nominated a Java Champion in In addition, he holds a MEng in Computer Science from Imperial College London and graduated with first-class honors, having won several prizes for technical innovation.
Raoul has delivered over technical talks at international conferences. He has vast experience as a Java developer, having been involved in and often leading many enterprise-level projects in several industries ranging from media companies to the financial sector. Among his interests are functional programming and domain-specific languages. By leveraging these two passions, he created the open source library lambdaj with the goal of providing an internal Java DSL for manipulating collections and allowing a bit of functional programming in Java.
His research centers on programming languages and their semantics, optimization, and implementation. If you look carefully at his belt, you will find a lambda buckle added by our designer as a wink at one of the topics of this book. The title page states that these are hand-colored copperplate engravings, heightened with gum Arabic.
He engraved and printed maps for government and other official bodies and produced a wide range of commercial maps and atlases, especially of North America.
His work as a mapmaker sparked an interest in local dress customs of the lands he surveyed and mapped; they are brilliantly displayed in this four-volume collection. Fascination with faraway lands and travel for pleasure were relatively new phenomena in the eighteenth century, and collections such as this one were popular, introducing both the tourist as well as the armchair traveler to the inhabitants of other countries.
Dress codes have changed, and the diversity by region and country, so rich at one time, has faded away. It is now often hard to tell the inhabitant of one continent from another.
Part 1 Fundamentals T his first part of the book provides the fundamentals to help you get started with the new Java ideas introduced in Java 8. In chapter 1, we summarize the main changes to Java lambda expressions, method references, streams, and default methods and set the scene for the book. Its evolution via the addition of new features from Java 1. The question is this: Why should you care about these changes? The good news is that the changes enable you to write programs more easily.
For example, instead of writing verbose code to sort a list of apples in inventory based on their weight like Collections. This book will explain what it does and how you can write similar code. But the vast majority of existing Java programs use only one of these cores and leave the other three idle or spend a small fraction of their processing power running part of the operating system or a virus checker.
Prior to Java 8, experts might tell you that you have to use threads to use these cores. The problem is that working with threads is difficult and error-prone. Java has followed an evolutionary path of continually trying to make concurrency easier and less error-prone. Java 1. Java 5 added industrial-strength building blocks like thread pools and concurrent collections.
Java 8 gave us a new, simpler way of thinking about parallelism. Although this has more-specialist use, it standardizes a means of exploiting the RxJava and Akka reactive streams toolkits that are becoming popular for highly concurrent systems. From the previous two desiderata more concise code and simpler use of multicore processors springs the whole consistent edifice captured by Java 8.
As a result, it avoids the need for you to write code that uses synchronized, which is not only highly error-prone but also more expensive than you may realize on multicore CPUs.
But thinking of passing code to methods as a mere consequence of Streams downplays its range of uses within Java 8.
It gives you a new concise way to express behavior parameterization. Suppose you want to write two methods that differ in only a few lines of code. You can now simply pass the code of the parts that differ as an argument this programming technique is shorter, clearer, and less error-prone than the common tendency to use copy and paste. The Java 8 feature of passing code to methods and being able to return it and incorporate it into data structures also provides access to a range of additional techniques that are commonly referred to as functional-style programming.
The meat of this chapter begins with a high-level discussion on why languages evolve, continues with sections on the core features of Java 8, and then introduces the ideas of functional-style programming that the new features simplify using and that new computer architectures favor. In essence, section 1. Section 1. In summary, this chapter introduces ideas that are successively elaborated in the rest of the book.
Enjoy the ride! Locking requires these to be synchronized, requiring relatively slow cache-coherency-protocol inter-core communication.
With the s came the quest for the perfect programming language. Peter Landin, a famous computer scientist of his day, noted in in a landmark article2 that there had already been programming languages and speculated on what the next would be like�including arguments for functional-style programming similar to that in Java 8.
Many thousands of programming languages later, academics have concluded that programming languages behave like ecosystems: new languages appear, and old languages are supplanted unless they evolve. We all hope for a perfect universal language, but in reality certain languages are better fitted for certain niches.
Prior occupancy of a niche tends to discourage competitors. Changing to a new language and tool chain is often too painful for just a single feature, but newcomers will eventually displace existing languages, unless they evolve fast enough to keep up. Right from the start, it was a well-designed object-oriented language with many useful libraries. It also supported small-scale concurrency from day one with its integrated support for threads and locks and with its early prescient acknowledgment, in the form of a hardware-neutral memory model, that concurrent threads on multicore processors can have unexpected behaviors in addition to those that happen on single-core processors.
Also, the decision to compile Java to JVM bytecode a virtual machine code that soon every browser supported meant that it became the language of choice for internet applet programs do you remember applets?
Java has also been successful at colonizing various aspects of embedded computing everything from smart cards, toasters, and set-top boxes to car-braking systems. How did Java get into a general programming niche?
Object orientation became fashionable in the s for two reasons: its encapsulation discipline resulted in fewer software engineering issues than those of C; and as a mental model it easily captured the WIMP programming model of Windows 95 and up. This can be summarized as follows: everything is an object; and a mouse click sends an event message to a handler invokes the clicked method in a Mouse object. The write-once, run-anywhere model of Java and the ability of early browsers to safely execute Java code applets gave it a niche in universities, whose graduates then populated industry.
But the climate is changing for the programming language ecosystem; programmers are increasingly dealing with so-called big data data sets of terabytes and up and wishing to exploit multicore computers or computing clusters effectively to process it.
Figure 1. The main benefit of the Java 8 additions for a programmer is that they provide more programming tools and concepts to solve new or existing programming problems more quickly or, more importantly, in a more concise, more easily maintainable way. Another climate-change factor for Java One climate-change factor involves how large systems are designed.
Worse still, these components and their interfaces also tend to evolve. Java 8 and Java 9 have addressed these aspects by providing default methods and modules to facilitate this design style. The next three sections examine the three programming concepts that drove the design of Java 8. For introductory purposes, a stream is a sequence of data items that are conceptually produced one at a time.
A program might read items from an input stream one by one and similarly write items to an output stream. The output stream of one program could well be the input stream of another.
One practical example is in Unix or Linux, where many programs operate by reading data from standard input stdin in Unix and C, System. First, a little background: Unix cat creates a stream by concatenating two files, tr translates the characters in a stream, sort sorts lines in a stream, and tail -3 gives the last three lines in a stream. The Unix command line allows such programs to be linked together with pipes , giving examples such as cat file1 file2 tr "[A-Z]" "[a-z]" sort tail -3 9 Why is Java still changing?
We say that sort takes a stream of lines3 as input and produces another stream of lines as output the latter being sorted , as illustrated in figure 1. Note that in Unix these commands cat, tr, sort, and tail are executed concurrently, so that sort can be processing the first few lines before cat or tr has finished. A more mechanical analogy is a car-manufacturing assembly line where a stream of cars is queued between processing stations that each take a car, modify it, and pass it on to the next station for further processing; processing at separate stations is typically concurrent even though the assembly line is physically a sequence.
You can think of it as a fancy iterator for now. The Streams API has many methods that can be chained to form a complex pipeline just like Unix commands were chained in the previous example. The key motivation for this is that you can now program in Java 8 at a higher level of abstraction, structuring your thoughts of turning a stream of this into a stream of that similar to how you think when writing database queries rather than one item at a time. Another advantage is that Java 8 can transparently run your pipeline of Stream operations on several CPU cores on disjoint parts of the input�this is parallelism almost for free instead of hard work using Threads.
This sounds awfully abstract. In the Unix example, you might want to tell the sort command to use a custom ordering. Although the sort command supports command-line parameters to perform various predefined kinds of sorting such as reverse order, these are limited. The first four digits represent the year, the next two letters a country code, and last four digits the ID of a client.
What you want is the ability to tell the sort command to take as an argument an ordering defined by the user: a separate piece of code passed to the sort command. Now, as a direct parallel in Java, you want to tell a sort method to compare using a customized order. You could create a Comparator object to pass to the sort method as we showed at the start of this chapter, but this is verbose and obfuscates the idea of simply reusing an existing piece of behavior. Java 8 adds the ability to pass methods your code as arguments to other methods.
We also refer to this conceptually as behavior parameterization. Why is this important? The Streams API is built on the idea of passing code to parameterize the behavior of its operations, just as you passed compareUsingCustomerId to parameterize the behavior of sort.
Chapters 18 and 19 look at more advanced things you can do using this feature, with techniques from the functional programming community.
What do you have to give up? You may have to make some small changes in the way you code the behavior passed to stream methods. You must provide behavior that is safe to execute concurrently on different pieces of the input.
The previous parallelism arises only by assuming that multiple copies of your piece of code can work independently. What if two processes want to modify the shared variable at the same Why is Java still changing? Using synchronized across multiple processing cores is often far more expensive than you expect, because synchronization forces code to execute sequentially, which works against the goal of parallelism.
In contrast, in the imperative programming paradigm you typically describe a program in terms of a sequence of statements that mutate state. The no-shared-mutabledata requirement means that a method is perfectly described solely by the way it transforms arguments to results; in other words, it behaves as a mathematical function and has no visible side effects.
For example, the introduction of generics and using List instead of just List may initially have been irritating. Other changes have made common things easier to express for example, using a for-each loop instead of exposing the boilerplate use of an Iterator. The main changes in Java 8 reflect a move away from classical object orientation, which often focuses on mutating existing values, and toward the functional-style programming spectrum in which what you want to do in broad-brush terms for example, create a value representing all transport routes from A to B for less than a given price is considered prime and separated from how you can achieve this for example, scan a data structure modifying certain components.
Note that classical object-oriented programming and functional programming, as extremes, might appear to be in conflict. But the idea is to get the best from both programming paradigms, so you have a better chance of having the right tool for the job. We discuss this in detail in sections 1. A takeaway line might be this: languages need to evolve to track changing hardware or programmer expectations if you need convincing, consider that COBOL was once one of the most important languages commercially.
To endure, Java has to evolve by adding new features. We now introduce the new concepts in Java 8, one by one, pointing out the chapters that cover these concepts in more detail. Java 8 adds functions as new forms of value. These facilitate the use of streams, covered in section 1. We start by showing that functions as values are useful in themselves. Think about the possible values manipulated by Java programs.
First, there are primitive values such as 42 of type int and 3. Second, values can be objects more strictly, references to objects. The only way to get one of these is by using new, perhaps via a factory method or a library function; object references point to instances of a class. Examples include "abc" of type String , new Integer of type Integer , and the result new HashMap of explicitly calling a constructor for HashMap.
Even arrays are objects. Values as listed previously are first-class Java citizens, but various other Java concepts, such as methods and classes, exemplify second-class citizens. Methods are fine when used to define classes, which in turn may be instantiated to produce values, but neither are values themselves. Does this matter?
Yes, it turns out that being able to pass methods around at runtime, and hence making them first-class citizens, is useful in programming, so the Java 8 designers added the ability to express this directly in Java. Incidentally, you might wonder whether making other second-class citizens such as classes into firstclass-citizen values might also be a good idea.
Moreover, the Java 8 feature of methods as values forms the basis of various other Java 8 features such as Streams. The first new Java 8 feature we introduce is that of method references. Suppose you want to filter all the hidden files in a directory.
It can be viewed as a function that takes a File and returns a boolean. But to use it for filtering, you need to wrap it into a FileFilter object that you then pass to the File.
You already have the method isHidden that you could use. Why do you have to wrap it up in a verbose FileFilter class and then instantiate it? One advantage is that your code now reads closer to the problem statement.
Analogous to using an object reference when you pass an object around and object references are created by new , in Java 8 when you write File::isHidden, you create a method reference, which can similarly be passed around.
This concept is discussed in detail in chapter 3. Given that methods contain code the executable body of a method , using method references enables passing code around as in figure 1. File::isHidden syntax File::isHidden Figure 1. Chapter 3 explores lambdas in detail. Both links may be found at www. Suppose you have a class Apple with a method getColor and a variable inventory holding a list of Apples; then you might wish to select all the green apples here using a Color enum type that includes values GREEN Functions in Java 15 and RED and return them in a list.
The word filter is commonly used to express this concept. If the difference between the two method calls in the highlighted code had been what weight range was acceptable, then you could have passed lower and upper acceptable weights as arguments to filter�perhaps , to select heavy apples over g or 0, 80 to select light apples under 80 g. But as we mentioned previously, Java 8 makes it possible to pass the code of the condition as an argument, avoiding code duplication of the filter method.
The key idea to take away for now is that you can pass around a method in Java 8. The previous code passed a method Apple::isGreenApple which takes an Apple for argument and returns a boolean to filterApples, which expected a Predicate parameter. The word predicate is often used in mathematics to mean something function-like that takes a value for an argument and returns true or false.
But Java 8 has solved this, too. Code clarity should be your guide. The Java 8 designers could almost have stopped here, and perhaps they would have done so before multicore CPUs. Java 8 instead contains a new Collection-like API called Stream, containing a comprehensive set of operations similar to the filter operation that functional programmers may be familiar with for example, map and reduce , along with methods to convert between Collections and Streams, which we now investigate.
Using the Streams API, you can solve this problem as follows: import static java. Chapters 4�7 are dedicated to explaining how to make sense of the Streams API. You need to iterate through the elements one by one using a foreach loop processing them in turn.
We call this way of iterating over data external iteration. The data processing happens internally inside the library. We call this idea internal iteration.
We come back to these ideas in chapter 4. As a second pain point of working with collections, think for a second about how you would process the list of transactions if you had a vast number of them; how can you process this huge list? In theory, if you have eight cores, they should be able to process your data eight times as fast as using one core, because they work in parallel.
The problem is that a classic Java program uses just a single one of these cores, and the power of the others is wasted. Similarly, many companies use computing clusters computers connected together with fast networks to be able to process vast amounts of data efficiently.
Java 8 facilitates new programming styles to better exploit such computers. It reads every page on the internet and creates an index, mapping every word appearing on any internet page back to every URL containing that word.
Then, when you do a Google search involving several words, software can quickly use this index to give you a set of web pages containing those words. Each of the cores in a multicore chip is a full-fledged CPU. You have to think differently: threads can access and update shared variables at the same time.
As a result, data could change unexpectedly if not coordinated6 properly. This model is harder to think about7 than a step-by-step sequential model. For example, figure 1.
The result is instead of an expected result of Java 8 also addresses both problems boilerplate and obscurity involving processing collections and difficulty exploiting multicore with the Streams API java. The first design motivator is that there are many data-processing patterns similar to filterApples in the previous section or operations familiar from database query languages such as SQL that occur over and over again and that would benefit from forming part of a library: filtering data based on a criterion for example, heavy apples , extracting data for example, extracting the weight field from each apple in a list , or grouping data for example, grouping a list of numbers into separate lists of even and odd numbers , and so on.
The second motivator is that such operations can 6 7 Traditionally via the keyword synchronized, but many subtle bugs arise from its misplacement. Aha�a source of pressure for the language to evolve! For instance, as illustrated in figure 1. This is called the forking step 1. The CPUs then filter their respective half-lists 2. Finally 3 , one CPU would join the two results. This is closely related to how Google searches work so quickly, using many more than two processors.
The key point here is that the Streams API allows and encourages the elements within a stream to be processed in parallel. Although it may seem odd at first, often the fastest way to filter a collection for example, to use filterApples in the previous section on a list is to convert it to a stream, process it in parallel, and then convert it back to a list.
There are two magic bullets. First, the library handles partitioning�breaking down a big stream into several smaller streams to be processed in parallel for you. But it turns out that this restriction feels natural to a coder see, by way of example, our Apple::isGreenApple example.
One of the practical issues the Java 8 developers found in evolving Java with all these new goodies was that of evolving existing interfaces.
For example, the method Collections. This may seem trivial but, prior to Java 8 you can update an interface only if you update all the classes that implement it�a logistical nightmare! This issue is resolved in Java 8 by default methods. Historically, Java had little support for this, apart from a JAR file containing a set of Java packages with no particular structure. Moreover, evolving interfaces to such packages was hard�changing a Java interface meant changing every class that implements it.
Java 8 and 9 have started to address this. First, Java 9 provides a module system that provide you with syntax to define modules containing collections of packages�and keep much better control over visibility and namespaces. Modules enrich a simple JAR-like component with structure, both as user documentation and for machine checking; we explain them in detail in chapter Second, Java 8 added default methods to support evolvable interfaces.
We cover these in detail in chapter In section 1. The simplest solution, which you might employ for your own interfaces, would have been for the Java 8 designers to add the stream method to the Collection interface and add the implementation in the ArrayList class.
But doing this would have been a nightmare for users. Many alternative collection frameworks implement interfaces from the Collections API.
Adding a new method to an interface means all concrete classes must provide an implementation for it. Language designers have no control over existing implementations of Collection, so you have a dilemma: How can you evolve published interfaces without disrupting existing implementations? Then who implements them? The missing method bodies are given as part of the interface hence default implementations rather than in the implementing class.
This provides a way for an interface designer to enlarge an interface beyond those methods that were originally planned�without breaking existing code. Java 8 allows the existing default keyword to be used in interface specifications to achieve this.
For example, in Java 8, you can call the sort method directly on a list. This is made possible with the following default method in the Java 8 List interface, which calls the static method Collections.
The parent is the artifact with the ID expenses. You need to define the parent in pom. Next, you need to specify the pom. This file is similar to the preceding one, but you have to add a dependency to the expenses. Now you can run the command mvn clean package to generate the JARs for the modules in your project.
This command generates. Real-world software, however, depends on external modules and libraries. In the next section, we answer these questions by introducing automatic modules. Automatic modules How do you incorporate that library into your project?
Run mvn clean package again to see what happens. Unfortunately, the result is bad news: [ERROR] module not found: httpclient You get this error because you also need to update your pom. Java turns the appropriate JAR into a so-called automatic module. Any JAR on the module path without a module-info file becomes an automatic module. Automatic modules implicitly export all their packages. A name for this automatic module is invented automatically, derived from the JAR name.
NOTE As you learned in the earlier sections, you declare a module by using the module directive. Here, it has the name com. We look at these clauses in turn in the following sections.
The module com. By default, no package is exported. You gain strong encapsulation by making explicit what packages should be exported. In the following example, the packages com. Note that exports takes a package name as an argument and that requires takes a module name, despite the similar naming schemes. You can modify the requires clause, for example, to requires-transitive inside the declaration of the module com.
Transitivity is useful when the module required here, com. It would be annoying to re-declare requires com. This problem is solved by transitive. Now any module that depends on com. As you saw in section The open qualifier has no effect on module visibility except for allowing reflective access, as in this example: open module com. In other words, nothing was truly encapsulated. Object-relational mapping ORM tools such as Hibernate often use this capability to access and modify state directly.
In Java 9, reflection is no longer allowed by default. Instead of opening a whole module to reflection, you can use an opens clause within a module declaration to open its packages individually, as required. E-book Download Modern Java in Action: Lambdas, streams, functional and reactive programming Full Format Description E-book Download Modern Java in Action: Lambdas, streams, functional and reactive programming Full Format Modern applications take advantage of innovative designs, including microservices, reactive architectures, and streaming data.
Modern Java features like lambdas, streams, and the long-awaited Java Module System make implementing these designs significantly easier. It's time to upgrade your skills and meet these challenges head on! About the Book Modern Java in Action connects new features of the Java language with their practical applications.
Using crystal-clear examples and careful attention to detail, this book respects your time. It will help you expand your existing knowledge of core Java as you master modern additions like the Streams API and the Java Module System, explore new approaches to concurrency, and learn how functional concepts can help you write code that's easier to read and maintain.
Mario Fusco is a senior software engineer at Red Hat. It begins with a practical introduction to lambdas, using real-world Java code. Next, it covers the new Streams API and shows how you can use it to make collection-based code radically easier to understand and maintain. The introduction of functional programming concepts in Java SE 8 was a drastic change for this venerable object-oriented language. Lambda expressions, method references, and streams fundamentally changed the idioms of the language, and many developers have been trying to catch up ever since.
This cookbook will help. With more than 70 detailed recipes, author Ken Kousen shows you how to use the newest features of Java to solve a wide range of problems. For developers comfortable with previous Java versions, this guide covers nearly all of Java SE 8, and includes a chapter focused on changes coming in Java 9.
Need to understand how functional idioms will change the way you write code? This cookbook�chock full of use cases�is for you.
Recipes cover: The basics of lambda expressions and method references Interfaces in the java. Threads are a fundamental part of the Java platform. As multicore processors become the norm, using concurrency effectively becomes essential for building high-performance applications.
Java SE 5 and 6 are a huge step forward for the development of concurrent applications, with improvements to the Java Virtual Machine to support high-performance, highly scalable concurrent classes and a rich set of new concurrency building blocks. In Java Concurrency in Practice , the creators of these new facilities explain not only how they work and how to use them, but also the motivation and design patterns behind them.
However, developing, testing, and debugging multithreaded programs can still be very difficult; it is all too easy to create concurrent programs that appear to work, but fail when it matters most: in production, under heavy load. Java Concurrency in Practice arms readers with both the theoretical underpinnings and concrete techniques for building reliable, scalable, maintainable concurrent applications.
Rather than simply offering an inventory of concurrency APIs and mechanisms, it provides design rules, patterns, and mental models that make it easier to build concurrent programs that are both correct and performant.
This book covers: Basic concepts of concurrency and thread safety Techniques for building and composing thread-safe classes Using the concurrency building blocks in java. This second edition of a Manning bestseller has been revised and re-titled to fit the 'In Action' Series by Steve Loughran, an Ant project committer. Ant in Action introduces Ant and how to use it for test-driven Java application development.
Ant itself is moving to v1. A single application of increasing complexity, followed throughout the book, shows how an application evolves and how to handle the problems of building and testing.
Reviewers have praised the book's coverage of large-projects, Ant's advanced features, and the details and depth of the discussion-all unavailable elsewhere. Also available is all code from the book. Summary Java's much-awaited "Project Jigsaw" is finally here!
Java 11 includes a built-in modularity framework, and The Java Module System is your guide to discovering it. In this new book, you'll learn how the module system improves reliability and maintainability, and how it can be used to reduce tight coupling of system components.
Foreword by Kevlin Henney. You'll find registration instructions inside the print book. About the Technology Packaging code into neat, well-defined units makes it easier to deliver safe and reliable applications. Holowaychuk, Nathan Rajlich.
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